Monday, January 18, 2021

Second Outline of Malthus

This outline relates to the Seventh Essay on Population.Once more I'm sorry that the indentations are busted

    I-Book 1

     

    1-Statement of the subject. Ratios of the increase of population and food

    Identification of the principal cause that has impeded the progress of mankind towards happiness:

        Tendency of life to increase beyond the nourishment prepared for it.

        Observation by Franklin regarding proliferation

          It fills vacants

          Crowding

          Mutual interference

          [“ Every species of animals naturally multiplies in proportion to that means of their subsistence, and no species can ever multiply beyond it.” Adam Smith; Wealth; bk I ch VIII]

         

        Nature is powerful in proliferation

          Yet sparing in nourishment to provide for

         

        Man has the additional factor of reason

          Still, if unchecked would be limited in the acquisition of food

        This results in misery, by many

      Examination of unfettered growth

        The available land is eventually used up: "Man is necessarily confined in room"

          England

          The world

        New colonies have the advantage of untapped resources

        After all the available land is occupied, then comes its amelioration

        This is a fund, constantly diminishing

         

        The geometric versus arithmetic growths

        Those who fall into the difference and up unprovided for (scarcity)

     

    1. Of the general checks to population, and their mode of operation

    Immediate checks, by their nature, activate before actual famine

    These are:

    Preventive

    Reasoning enables man to foresee (calculate) distant consequences

    "Calculate… If he may be able to support the offspring which he will probably bring into the world"

    Vice which results in general corruption of morals and unhappiness (7)

    The preventive check is least evil of the population principle if it doesn't leads to vice (8)

    Positive

    Stems from vice or misery

    Unwholesome occupations, severe labor and exposure to the seasons, extreme poverty, but nursing of children, and large towns, excesses off all kinds, common diseases & epidemics, wars, plague [and famine]

    These checks are resolved  into moral restraint, vice & misery