Saturday, September 26, 2020

The Best of Anime cd review

There was anime music before we you were born. Yes, really and from the start it was surprisingly good. This CD, released in the US is a selection from various anime ranging from the very most ancient to just beyond the mid-90s. Looking at the show titles, I find that I did not watch any of them (except for Sailor Moon), but that wasn't a barrier for me to enjoy the goodies collected here, even more because the general style we all know and love is carried backwards in time so to speak. 

The first three titles come from the 60s and are presented with their English vocals. They show their age, but their quaintness is all the more lovable. Then comes the first transition with with the quirky theme to Urusei Yatsura switching to all Japanese. Then comes the main course, a jaw-dropping series of themes, all extended and all jewels in their own right.  These people from Rhino, the ones who released the CD, were not kidding when they offered the best of anime up to the time. I'll say it: I've watched anime for decades now, and the opening to Oh My Goddess! is the best I've listened to followed by that of Devil Hunter Yohko. Both of these can be found here. Including the rest, I sincerely cannot come with any changes that would make the CD better.  All the vocals are lovely to boot.

The accompanying booklet gives a good synopsis for each show and includes a cel on the front cover (mine was Cutey Honey).

I bought my copy back when it was new and had not listened to it in maybe the last 10 years. When I dusted it off just a couple of weeks ago, I was struck by how fresh the songs still sound when compared to the present offerings. 

Nowadays, vaporwave, future funk and related subgenres are trending. Some of it is good, some not. It amazes me why these have become a thing when the original works are out there in full glory; no need to resort to washed-out bastardizations. Go back to the sample sources, I'm sure you'll love them.

The anime songs from the CD are probably ones that you have not heard before, but they richly deserve to be brought back from obscurity. This is a really late review, but not late enough for you to avail yourself to the music. You can still find copies on Discogs for a few bucks and probably also on eBay.

5 stars

Anime covered:

  1. Astro Boy
  2. Gigantor
  3. Speed Racer
  4. Urusei Yatsura
  5. Megazone 23
  6. Windaria
  7. Gunbuster
  8. Record of Lodoss War
  9. Devil Hunter Yohko
  10. Silent Möbius
  11. Cat Girl Nuku Nuku
  12. New Dominion Tank Police
  13. Oh My Goddess
  14. New Cutey Honey
  15. Macross Plus
  16. Sailor Moon


Friday, August 28, 2020

Wizardry Cds Review

After the captured trophy of We Love Wizardry there remained a palpable gap in my musical experience which was the music from the rest of the series. Since those were Japan-only releases there was an important hurdle from not having any contacts over there. In fact, the only place I could find them, other than the odd-eBay publication, was With the lockdown crisis and the fact that I had already waited, literally, decades, I felt that this year was the time to get hold of them. The thing is that I actually picked up very bad time and the exchange rate hit me hard. I managed to get the three titles I was looking for from a single seller but those amounted to close to $200. If it was not now, when?

Some general observations covering all three discs. These came in great shape with no scratches on their surfaces or jewel cases. The accompanying booklets had some foxing marks and provided the score for some of the tracks. Unexpectedly, two of the three came in with their official stickers (I'm not peeling those off anytime soon) and the other with its obi strip tucked between the pages. All of them played back flawlessly and everything is still performed mostly on synths. The composer is still Kentaro Haneda. There are no LP releases for these titles. There is no release at all for Wizardry IV.

Wizardry II and III

Legacy carries some steam from Proving Grounds in its music but with less punch. The highlights for this one are the Title Screen and the Temple tracks. Unlike the rest, this one has a bonus playthrough with the original sound and samples for the traps and some other effects. The part that I liked best from the playthrough is the total party kill and their resurrection.


Knight of Diamonds is a hodgepodge of styles assigned to the familiar locations. There's classical, Caribbean, samba and metal. It is also unusual in its having an actual guitarist for a few sections in the fighting in victory themes. I'm at a loss to explain what the composer was going for, but while the result is the least Wizardry-like, it is enjoyable.

When it comes to comparing these two to the gold standard, which is the first installment, these two fall moderately strong in terms of engagement. If I were to compare them to contemporary dungeon synth, some of the current artists surpass what is found in these two offerings. While reservedly good, they should probably not rank high in someone's wish list. The prices they're going for make them even less appealing. I had the urge, and had to go for them, but the experience didn't match the outlay.

Both of them just good

 Wizardry V

Heart is the one that returns best to the Proving Grounds roots and in a way can serve as a junior partner to the flagship We Love Wizardry. In fact, with a couple listens in my previous gaming experience, I would say this one comes real close to the first suite, maybe some 7/8 of the way. The selection is very consistent and doesn't sag anywhere. The music for both the upper and lower levels of the dungeon work quite well and the information gathering theme is a fun one. It also has the best ending starting with a good fanfare followed by a medleys of the above-ground locations in a Final Fantasy fashion, closing the chapter with the best aftertaste from all the titles of the series I have listened to.

Now, in terms of dungeon synth, the ingenuity of the composer clearly outshines most of the field. This one is one to get hold of. If you can get the duo of We Love Wizardry and Heart, do so. Their scarcity and prices are still obstacles, but if surmounted, these are sure pay off in enjoyment over the years. Ditto, for any of these two singly.

You'll find nothing better

If I'm reading it right, I have still one suite to go from the same composer which is Wizardry VI Cosmic Forge. After the experience with Knight & Legacy, if I ever go for it, I'll check it out before hand on Youtube or somewhere. According to the vgmdb, there are still many other episodes and offshoots which are a total blank for me. Who knows? Maybe I'll be talking to you sometime in the future about the series again.

Saturday, August 15, 2020

Outline of Malthus

I'm about to start rereading Malthus' First Essay as a preamble to reading Darwin's Origin of Species in its entirety. I had last year a more limited project in the context of better reading, and thought well to go back to my original notes which I intend to expand. In the meantime, I thought to post them here. As with the last post, Pavlov, this is more of an outline than anything else. The following questions are the ones that I had in mind at the outset.
  1. Does it really match my own conception?
  2. What is to be done about charity, if true?
  3. What relationship does it have to Japan's current population woes?
  4. What's its influence on Darwin?
  5. How is it organized & how does it help and reading in general?
  6. Can some of the perfectibility still be achieved?


(If you wish a more extended treatment, here is my second outline)




The problem:

Either the future holds

Unlimited human improvement or

Swings between happiness & misery


Those holding opposing views do not have a frank exchange of ideas

Malthus' ideas have not been adequately explained by others (Smith, Condorcet, Godwin) and he's aware of the burden of proof. Hence he postulates:


  1. Food is necessary to the existence of man
  2. The passion between the sexes is necessary and will remain nearly in its present state

It, being extinguished (Godwin)-not happening


"Unphilosophical to infer, merely from the existence of an exception, that the exception would become the rule and the rule the exception"



There’s a strong operating check on population from the difficulty of subsistence or

The power population is greater than the power of Earth to sustain it

Arithmetical vs geometrical


This results in:

  • Misery (necessarily) and vice (probably+) [however, XVIII & XIX offer a way out]
  • That these will fall on some part of society (II, IV)



Perfectibility is not possible


 II- Reason


The difference in rates of increase

  • No state has hitherto existed that has had
    • Pure and simple manners
    • Abundant means of subsistence
    • No check to early marriages
    • Or to higher classes out of fear of loss of status


The US, however, is close


  • The rate of growth of cultivation (England) can scarcely be imagined to keep up a fast rate (with known techniques)


  • The urge for population increase

(The nature of checks on animals and plants and humans)

Causes distress in the lower classes &

Prevents any permanent amelioration of their condition

  • Disparity of population versus subsistence
    1. Initial scarcity

Makes poor much worse

Some with severe distress

  1. More laborers results in lower wages

Labor is their only possession (V)

  1. More inflation


  1. Checks the rise of population, yet sows improvement in cultivation repeating the cycle

A reason why this hasn't been evident before is that we only have the history of the higher classes

There is an imperfect labor market through rich conspiracies


III-States of mankind


Savage/hunter state

The struggle for existence

Thin population through scarcity. Increments result in misery (check). The American Indian



Large population due to mobility and food resources

Expansion up to a point the misery and vice. The Scythians.


IV-Progress of population in civilized nations


Increase as compared to former times: industry of the people


The case of China


The case of Europe: Check to population #1: Preventive foresight (higher classes) (II)


"Can a man consent to place the object of his affection in a situation so discordant, probably, to her tastes and inclinations?" Cf. Walden II


The case of England


V- Check #2: Distress of the lower classes. Poor laws (welfare)


These spread the misery even when they benefit the odd individual


The sums and length of time have been to no avail


The increase of payouts results in

  • Scarcity and inflation

(primary goods, substitutes and basic inputs such as corn)

  • A reduction of productivity

Through leisure

The means of production are another matter though

If the wealth of resources are not directed to productivity

Some benefit, but the rest are harmed as their share of produce is diminished (II)

  • Foments  marriages with no prospects of productive independence since the parish serves as a backup


The nonexistence of such gives rise to industry, sobriety, foresight, thriftiness, virtue, happiness


So, (the existence of such laws)

  • Weakens the individual morally in his resolve 
  • Increases the population without an increase of the means of its support


Call for abolition

Stimulus for land productivity

Workhouses for those in distress


General checks: unwholesome food & habitation, hard labor,pestilence, war, others


VI- New colonies



Increases the population due to an existing reservoir





Natural and necessary consequence of population growth

Crowded living spaces

Unwholesome food

Insufficient food


The only criterion of real and permanent increase of population is the increase of the means of subsistence


Temporal shocks appear to be weathered by lower subsistence i.e. meaner food


Happiness is equated to the match between growth rates


VIII- Theses by others



The problem is still far off



There is a march towards perfection

Endgame matches Malthus'


"When the increase the number of men surpassing their means of subsistence, the necessary result must be either a continual diminution of happiness and population… Or a kind of oscillation between good & evil"


Here too the problem is still far off





The future extension of human life

Confusion between "indefinite" & "unlimited"

Ad continuum fallacy


Biological perfectibility




Godwin's (X-XV) view:

("Population perpetually kept down to the level of subsistence" Not addressed.)

Socialist-like society based on benevolence, reason, shared property


An example utopia falls to population growth (cf. Socialist societal proposals; Walden II)

In its sustainability

Morally (q.v. I, II)


Misery the result


XI- Passion between the sexes

Concludes: Lower classes won't be sufficiently free to achieve a high degree of intellectual improvement 

XII- Immortality, progress to

(cf James The Energies of Men)

“… it is an idea that will be found consistent, equally with a natural phenomena around us, with that various events of human life, and with the success of revelations of God to man, to suppose that the world is a mighty process for the creation information of mind.” (18,19)


XIII- Intellectuality of men


Godwin: man is a rational being. 

        Malthus: it also has corporal propensities (concupiscence from original sin). The passion for intellectual pleasures cannot be transmitted to some. 

XIV- Virtue from reason

Examination of Godwin's chain of deduction

Godwin: men raised without evil impressions would be virtuous and free of vice

Malthus: not so, as shown in X. Improbability of getting such character.  

Experiments on society:

No person can deny the importance of improving

the happiness of the human species. Every the least advance in this

respect is highly valuable. But an experiment with the human race is

not like an experiment upon inanimate objects. The bursting of a flower

may be a trifle. Another will soon succeed it. But the bursting of the

bonds of society is such a separation of parts as cannot take place

without giving the most acute pain to thousands: and a long time may

elapse, and much misery may be endured, before the wound grows up again.



Poor man's only possession: his physical strength


If the wealth were to be shared among the poor without asking anything in return, there would arise



Diminution of land produce


The miser/frugal as enemies

It would be a violation of the first and most sacred property that a man possesses to attempt, by positive institutions, to interfere with his command over his own labor.

An increasing demand for agricultural labor must always tend to better the condition of the poor.


XVI- Possible error in Adam Smith

An increased stock benefits the many?

Happiness linked with the maintenance of labor. Argument in which increases in manufacturing enriches the country yet depress more the poor.


XVII- Unproductiveness of wealth and trade to the state

         Skepticism on the activity and product of luxury manufacturing as a wealth engine.

XVIII-XIX- Population as an evil to spur on greater good through mind and heart


XVIII- Formation of mind


Principle of population tells that

No substantial perfectibility can be attained in this earth


One must reason for an explanation from nature to God as the contrary is futile

What actually is (apparent?) in nature


There appears to be a process

A trial… it is not, but a formation of mind, out from and away from original sin, through general laws towards superior enjoyment


Awakeners of mind (problems to be solved; avoid evil & pursue good)

Wants of the body


Were produce is abundant:

Few remarkable intellects

(as opposed to temperate zones)


Variety (cf. Darwin)


These result in intellect and action


Spurs mankind to avoid evil & pursue good

Mind is the result of the exertions towards that end


The increase of population is a further stimulus

While there is much partial evil, it is more counterbalanced by the good

Middle classes are best positioned to benefit

Call for their relative increase

Disparagement of leisure


XVIII- take 2


Since perfectibility can't be achieved, due to the principle and associated pressures and distresses, it appears this world is but "a trial and school of virtue preparatory to a superior state of happiness"


For the improvement of the mind, it is much more fruitful to reason from what's already here, than from the Creator down.


The process of formation of mind may require a certain passage of time. So instead of a trial the present state is more geared to this process which would elevate matter into spirit. To that purpose God moves man from torpor to the capacity of superior enjoyment.


Malthus identifies the original sin as the torpor or corruption of the [original] chaotic matter.

Mind forms in parallel to the development of the body


The phenomenon appears to be calculated to spur man into the process


At the vanguard, the wants of the body

Man would not awaken from indolence if this was not so, much like the savage

Comparison of the nature of men in different countries regarding their ease of life and their mind

 Malthus reasons that the removal of the stimulants as a whole would sink man


Locke's viewpoint, in which man would rather avoid pain than achieve pleasure, further supports the idea about the necessity of evil to generate exertion and that, mind


Food procurement is paramount in this regard

"The processes of ploughing and clearing the ground, of collecting and sowing seeds, are not surely forthe assistance of God in his creation, but are made previously necessary to the enjoyment of the blessings of life, in order to rouse man into action, and form his mind to reason."


The principle of population is thus established to this effect- keep man on its toes


"The constancy of the laws of nature and of effects and causes is the foundation of all human knowledge, though far be it from me to say that the same power which framed and executes the laws of nature may not change them all in a moment…"


Due to man's inert state, the power [and constancy] of the principle  makes the peopleling the world happen and forestalls its wipeout by war, plague or similar disasters


Notwithstanding, the temperate zones appear to be the most apt for the formation of mind




XIX- Mind and heart


Sorrows & distresses

Necessary for the most part to humanize the heart and bring out Christian virtues

Christian virtues

Misapplied talents


Evil and death

The will of God


Moral evil appears to be necessary for the production of moral excellence and it is doled out in measure according to divine plan


Nudge into goodnesses


Life is a blessing

Constant exertion

Population is part of the means of the development of mind and heart

(Me: Malthus supposes that God wills evil for the generation of good)



XIX- take 2


Sorrows and distresses seem necessary to humanize the heart, awaken social sympathy, generate all Christian virtues and allow for the ample exertion of benevolence


Moral evil excites moral excellence and thus, the former appears necessary


After the passions and ones of the body awakens the intellect, the world's variety keeps it going. Ditto for metaphysical subjects


Musing about eternal reward and punishment from the result of the formation of mind


"The partial pain, therefore, that is inflicted by the supreme Creator, while he is forming numberless beings to a capacity of the highest enjoyments, is but as the dust of the balance in comparison of the happiness that is communicated, and we have every reason to think that there is no more evil in the world than what is absolutely necessary as one of the ingredients in the mighty process."



Thursday, April 30, 2020

Outline of Pavlov's lectures on Conditioned Reflexes 1927

What follows is my outline for Pavlov's Lectures Conditioned Reflexes (1927). Bracketed numbers refer to page numbers according Anrep's translation as found in the Classics in the History of Psychology page. The rest are my sparce notes. 

Lecture I


Recent physiological investigations

Investigative options

Through (then actual) psychology

Brand-new path of physiology stemming by the reflex as described by Descartes

A necessary reaction to an external stimulus through a definite nervous path

Objective and experimental


Pavlov's own frustrations in subjective methods

25 years of investigations and systematization (at the time of the lectures) with collaborators

Description of reflexes in general

These are for the survival of the organism (through adaptability)

Inhibitory and excitatory


Chains of reflexes

Identification of reflexes [12]

Example of freedom reflex

Investigatory reflex

Dynamic balance of reflexes in the organism



Lecture II



Choice of secretory reflex


Isolation from other stimuli [20]

Defense of isolation


Demonstration #1 [22]

Plain vanilla with metronome


Demonstration #2 [22]

Conditioned reflex. Signalization through sight . Food, conditioned itself


Demonstration #3 [23]

Food as an unconditional stimulus


Nomenclature of unconditioned and conditioned reflexes

Conditioning as learning


Conditions for successful conditioning [26, 392]

  1. It must overlap in time with the unconditioned stimulus;

The conditioned stimulus has to have some lead time;

The reverse doesn't generate a bond

  1. The organism has to be alert;

And free from any other nervous activity (as that arising from competing stimuli)

  1. A good state of health;
  2. The stimulus has to be mild or not overbearing.


Transformation of an unconditioned reflex into a conditioned one


Threshold of stimulus intensity


Lecture III


Second order conditioning

Third order conditioning found to be impossible


Conditioning through rituals [35]

Demonstration #4 [36]

Speculation on nervous connections


Characteristics of stimuli

Individual fluctuations in internal or external environment of the organism may, singly or collectively, acquire the properties of a conditioned stimulus



Trace conditioned reflex

Time lapse


Inhibition [43]




Description of external stimuli disrupting the conditioning of the dog [44]

Lasting effects

Old, established reflexes are more difficult to inhibit

Strength or unusualness of the stimulus has a proportional effect [46] !?

However, if not reinforced, they eventually lose their inhibitory powers !? Hence, they may be termed temporary inhibitory stimuli

Permanent external inhibition


Lecture IV


Internal inhibition

Develops progressively, often with difficulty, as opposed to external inhibition


Extinction (primary)

Weakening of the conditioned reflex by repeated application of the conditioned stimulus without reinforcement

Demonstration #5a

Fluctuations in the curve of extinction

External influences


Rate of extinction [51]

Peculiarities of each organism

Strength of previous conditioning

Number of trials

Intensity of the unconditioned reflex

Length of pause between successive repetitions

Secondary extinction

When primary extinction is happeningother conditioned reflexes are also affected notwithstanding if these are:

Homogeneous conditioned reflexes

Based on the same unconditioned reflex

Heterogeneous conditioned reflexes

On a different unconditioned reflex

After several extinctions even the unconditioned reflex might weaken [54]

The permanency of the secondary reflex also depends on

Its own reinforcement and extinction

If it's weaker than the primary reflex acted upon

When the stimulus is compound, the individual stimuli also suffer from secondary extinction

Similarly, the stronger the stimulus, the more effect it will have on the weaker and viceversa


Extinction beyond zero [58]

Measured by its effects on the secondary reflex

Spontaneous recovery

Demonstration #5b

Recovery by a few pairings

Extinction is regarded (by Pavlov) as a special case of inhibition and thus it cannot be completely destroyed. (Hence, nervous connections are rendered latent and subject to reestablishment)


Deviations in the curve of extinction


Temporary restoration of the condition reflects is regarded as a dis-inhibition [66] or inhibition of a inhibition


Lecture V


Internal inhibition (continued)

Combinations of stimuli

Conditioned inhibition/differential inhibition

An unreinforced combination will render an otherwise positive stimulus inactive

Temporal considerations

Overlap of a few seconds in the stimuli is of the essence for inhibition

A clear temporal separation of the stimuli renders the additional one as positive (of the second order) rather than inhibitory (provided it is not very intense, in which case it would work as an external inhibition)

Curve behavior [72]

Other factors

Character of the individual

Intensity of the stimulus

First establishment of an inhibitory process or a succeeding one


Summation or repetition of an inhibitory process [79]

Shortening of its effects

Dis-inhibition [82]

By the introduction of just another external stimuli the inhibition is partially lifted


Lecture VI


Internal inhibition (continued)


Interval between stimulus and reinforcement of the unconditioned reflex




By retarding a simultaneous reflex gradually

By jumping from a simultaneous reflects to a delayed one

There's an initial disappearance of the reflex, however, it gradually strengthens with enough trials and moves into intermediate position between the stimulus and the reinforcement

It is difficult to establish a delayed reflex without a previous application of a simultaneous regime

Intervening factors

Character of the individual

Type of conditioned stimulus used [90]

Trials during the preliminary stage

Whether the stimulus is continued or intermittent

Nature of the delay inhibition

Initially strong and not a gradual summation of the excitatory processes nor fatigue

Other stimuli acting on the delay phase

These may disrupt or not the inhibition depending on their type (strength)[94] or their repetition [98]

Initial excitatory behavior versus posterior inhibitory in the delay phase from one stimulus [103]

A compound stimulus is formed with the lapse of time experienced

Latent period

Brief recapitulation [106]

Experimental extinction

Conditioned inhibition

Inhibition of delay


Second order inhibition


Lecture VII


Reflex mechanisms

Analyzing mechanism

By which it selects out of the whole complexity of the environment those units which are of significance

Synthesizing mechanism

By which individual units can be integrated into an excitatory complex


Previous investigations of the analyzing mechanism

The superiority of the scope of the conditioned reflex



Initially, all the characteristics of the environment serve as a generalized stimulus and after some trials, the relevant stimulus from it come to the foreground, while those that are not, fall back [115]

Not based on dis-inhibition

Establishment of differentiations

Through repeated reinforcement

Not as effective if at all

By contrast [118, 122]

First, establish a reflex;

Present a similar, though contrasting in some aspect, stimuli without reinforcement;

Work from there to even finer contrasts


The non-reinforced stimuli lose their excitatory processes through inhibition […, 125]

Though not without fluctuations [120]

Can work with either positive or negative conditioned stimuli

Differential inhibition is the fourth type of internal inhibition


Intensity of the stimulus

Intensity of the unconditioned reflex



Lecture VIII


Instrumentation recap


Sense (analyzers) sensibility


Auditory [134]

Tone, pitch, rhythm

Instrument limits

Tactile [137]



Nutritive substances

Rejectable substances

Synthesis [141]

Compound stimuli

Overshadowing of different stimuli in type

Cutaneous is stronger than auditory; stronger than auditory; stronger than visual

Nevertheless, the weaker stimulus is necessary for the production of the conditioned reflects a when it has been compounded with a stronger one. Also on the weaker element can bring down a compound stimulus if it is not singly reinforced (inhibition).

If single stimuli already have served on conditioning, there is no overshadowing when compounded [IX]

Successive stimuli [145]

With same or different analyzers

Modifications of patterns

A set pattern can be differentiated from unreinforced ones although this, takes time

Individual stimuli lose their excitatory properties

Elementary and higher forms of analysis and synthesis [148]

Sense limits



Lecture IX


Irradiation and concentration

Internal inhibition initiated in a single definite point of an analyzer, rapidly irradiates over the whole analyzer, after which it is slowly concentrated upon its initial point. This can be traced.


Supposition that there is a correspondence between the analyzers and that of the cortex in regards of neighboring areas [154, 214]


Investigation of the nature of the phenomena [156]

Places of secondary and primary extinction


Auditory specific


Lecture X


Secondary inhibition of the other analyzers

Inhibition initiated in one analyzer reveals itself in other analyzers as well in the form of inhibitory aftereffect

Dependent on inhibition strength

Nonetheless the effect is weaker than in the primary analyzer


Experimental methodology [171]

Difficulties [175]


Aftereffects of the excitatory processes


Generalization of any recently established conditioned stimulus [185]


Lecture XI


Mutual induction


Positive induction

Inhibition leading to increased excitation

Following the extinction in some other area of stimulus within the analyzer

Not the form of dis-inhibition [190]

Depends on

The intensity of inhibition

Coarseness (or just how fine) of differentiation [194]

Coarser differentiation loses its induction when followed by finer training

Represents a temporary, phasic phenomenon in the establishment of inhibition

There are exceptions

Negative induction [196]

Excitation leading to increased inhibition

Difficulties in its investigation

Lecture XII


Interaction of irradiation and concentration with induction

These processes interact with one another

Sensitivity [208]

Of single non-reinforcement


Small influences over extended periods

Undulation (waves) in time and distribution of inhibition

Correspondence [214]


Positive induction applied to a definite place limits the spread of the inhibitory process


The interaction between expectation and mediation is determined either by the face of establishing new relations in the cortex or by the type of nervous system in different animals


Lecture XIII


The cortex as a mosaic of functions

Some cells respond to excitation while others to inhibition in a localized manner

Suggested problems (unresolved)

Functional demarcation

Its mechanism


Variability and stability [227]

Dynamic system [232]


Lecture XIV


Second kind of inhibition: inhibition in the cortex

Under the influence of conditioned stimuli that cortex sooner or later (sometimes very slowly) develops inhibition. This happens in a progressive manner

Frequent repetitions accelerates this process [237, 242]

This is attributed to the sensibility of the cortical elements which become functionally exhausted [244]

In other words, it is a protective mechanism



Shortening of the reinforcement delay

Avoiding many repetitions in one session

Interruption of the trials


Increase in the strength of the conditioned stimulus

Increase of the number of the conditioned stimuli (positive induction)

Increasing the strength of the unconditioned stimulus


When the inhibition has taken hold even the conditioned stimulus fails

A new conditioned stimulus restores the subject [239-241]


Lecture XV


A general spreading of this inhibition is possible: sleep or internal inhibition


Development of inhibitions

Prolonged action of a conditioned stimulus

Perhaps even more so with extinction

In differentiation it is clearer

Happens also with delayed reflexes


Starts with drowsiness and develops into deep sleep

The unconditioned stimulus even loses efficacy

With non-reinforcement

Reinforcement delays the progression of the secondary inhibition


Powerful stimuli (such as electric shocks) can also be found to develop internal and secondary inhibition


Some analyzers (senses) lend themselves more readily to inhibitions than others


Internal inhibition is explained as a scattered sleep [253] and functional fatigue [259]


Avoidance tactics [254]

The addition of other stimuli [255]

Even add to the sleep [258]

Monotonous stimuli on humans


Surgical investigations [259]


From sleep to inhibition [260]

With delays

Summation of inhibitions (cf. 256)


Excitation preceding drowsiness [263]


Final considerations


Lecture XVI


Transitional stages into sleep

Partial; localized sleep

Alert posture but unresponsive

Complete inhibition in the cortex; motor centers still free from inhibition



Subject's previous conditioning history

Numerous applications

Nature of the neutral stimuli

Weak and/or prolonged

Strong and short

May cause the spread of partial division into other areas of the cortex: "animal hypnotism" [269,312]


Variation of intensity in compound stimuli as a means of comparing them [269]

What can happen over many days (pathological) can be replicated in a few minutes in the transition to sleep

Paradoxical phase [271]

Strong stimuli do not have an effect while weak ones have a disproportionate one

Equalization phase

All the stimuli become equal in their effect

Intermediate (unnamed) phase

Medium strength stimuli have the greater effect

Return to normal


Relation to induction [276]


Narcotics [278]

Other transition controls [280]


No definite order in the phases can be established


Lecture XVII


Pathological disturbances arising from function


Dependence on types

Equal influences do not have the same effects […, 299]




Vivacious, but most likely to fall into drowsiness in the absence of stimuli. Predisposition to excitation […, 293]


Fraidy, but more apt to yield regular results under conditioning.  Predisposition to inhibition (Cf. Introverts).

Intermediate types [288]





Conflict between excitation and inhibition [292]



There is a breakdown of conditioned reflexes [290, ]. Acute neurosis





Rest [290,]

Stepping back and starting afresh [291, 319]

Chemical compounds [299]

Companionship [296]

Other stimuli [318]


Lecture XVIII


Transition from inhibition to excitation

Possibilities [311]

From a single point to the whole cortex

As injurious agent upon the cortex


Congenital weaknesses [312]

Definite conditions bring forth abnormalities

Types of stimuli according to intensity

The case of Petrograd 1924

Unusually strong stimulus

Breakdown of conditioned reflexes

Their restoration. Neurotic sequels (PTSD?)


Constitutions predisposed to inhibition become even more susceptible to it. Chronic pathological state [, 397]


Lecture XIX


Physical disturbances or interventions

Methodology and difficulties

Experimenter reflexes are the most likely to disappear well inherent, natural, reflexes are the first to resurface

Usually the greater the lesion, the greater it takes to recover

Recovered reflexes are often stronger [324] while inhibitions weaker

Complications [325]

Peculiar symptoms

Extirpation the whole cortex [328]

Simple reflex machine. Unconditionable

Acoustic analyzer centers [330]


Lecture XX


Visual analyser

Tactile analyser

Motor analyser


Lecture XXI


Activity after lesions

Example of reestablishment of conditioned reflexes [374]


Lecture XXII


Investigatory viewpoints

The one taken: the laws governing a complex system founded on the processes of excitation and inhibition

Determination and tabulation of different phases of the cortical activity

Absence or presence of inhibition or excitation

Their conditions

Their interrelations


Difficulties encountered [378]

Exquisiteness and complexity of the system



Reassessment of the old points of view

Secondary conditions [383]

Stimuli intensity


Way forward

Reducing the mass of various separate observations to terms of a progressive diminishing number of general more fundamental units [387]



Mechanism of dis-inhibition [390]

Necessary elements of conditioning



Lecture XXIII


Results in application to man



Habits identified as a chain of conditioned reflexes

Graduality in acquisition

Interruptions as disruptions of performance

Other similarities

Monotonous stimuli inducing drowsiness

Alertness and sleep

Pathological cases

Nervous and psychic disturbances

Violent changes in life, powerful stimuli…

(Petrograd 1924)

Cortex injury

Some individuals remain unaffected [397]

Identification with neurasthenia and hysteria [398]

Sleep disorders

Therapeutic measures [401]

Borderline states [404]

Hypnotic states


The conscious and the unconscious [410]


Final words

Much to explore and to systematize there still is